Meeting the Young Learner’s Needs

Parents can support young learners in discovering their needs and gifts.

Parents can support young learners in discovering their needs and gifts.

I often hear from parents who are discouraged about their child’s learning progress. Sometimes they’ll tell me that their youngster is bright, and that he or she shows interest in learning at home during weekends or vacation time. Yet at school, they say, that same child is bored or struggling, slower than others in completing work, looking for ways to avoid assignments, and—once home—often stalling on homework or forgetting to do it.

In any case, when parents make an appointment with me for a balancing session, I tell them that the ideal situation is for me to work with the whole family on the first visit. I explain that there will be “homeplay” for the whole family to do together. Homeplay, usually drawn from the Brain Gym® activities, is not something that the child does because he has a learning problem, or that he should be required to do. The purpose of these activities is for everyone to move and play together, becoming more balanced as a family, and research shows that synchronous movement is one vital way by which we connect with our surroundings and create social bonds.

Most parents understand, and are delighted to participate. Often, during that first balance for their child the parents themselves make profound shifts in their own ability to read, write, relate, or organize—shifts that exemplify for the child what learning can be like. Through such experiences, parents gain insight into the sensory skills actually involved in the learning process, and so develop empathy for the challenges their child is facing. Often a parent discovers that he or she has the same mixed-dominant(1) learning profile as the child, and discovers how to more effectively use this pattern. I might also share with them the finding that, in a study done with 461 high school students, 80% were found to be weak or inadequate in one or more of three key visual abilities(2). Now parents can better understand why moving and accessing the whole body is essential for addressing one-sided habits, and they can advocate for their child’s gifts and abilities, as well as their own. Nearly always, the whole family discovers how much fun it is to move together, lengthening muscles or dancing around with The Cross Crawl; mirroring one another with The Double Doodle, drawing soothing shapes on one another’s backs, or self-calming with Hook-ups or the Positive Points. 

I’ve found that, when the parents are aligned and in balance, the children immediately do better—even before I work with them individually. I believe this is at least in part because stress contracts muscles and restricts movement patterns, and children imitate a parent’s body posture, whether that posture appears dynamic or stressed. Most often, in one to four sessions a child will no longer feel left behind in his classroom. At schools where I’ve served as a consultant, I’ve found that, when the teachers are balanced, the students attend and focus better. If the teachers are stressed, the students will act out.

A child can do his best when he knows his parents hold a neutral space for his learning.

A child can do his best when he knows his parents hold a neutral space for his learning.

For more than forty years, I’ve worked with those of all ages who have been diagnosed with such labels as dyslexia, dyscalculia, autism, Asperger’s syndrome, and learning disabilities—and even with children as young as nine months who were “failing to thrive” or slow to crawl. I’ve worked with children one-on-one, with their parents or caregivers participating or looking on, and also during courses, teaching the children in front of a group of adult students.

While teaching in Europe, I’ve had parents talk with me about a son or daughter who, they said, was hopelessly far behind and completely unable to learn. I’ve done balances with these same young people, teaching them simple Brain Gym, Vision Gym®, and other Edu-K activities, and have seen them discover how to learn on their own—often in that single session. Movement is a language in itself, one that somehow communicates beyond culture and instructional translation. Once youngsters realize how they can bring attention and movement to their learning process—purposefully waking up their eyes, ears, and whole body to the joy of learning—they begin to transform not just reading, writing, and math, but also how they interact with family members and friends.

Here are three of the reasons I believe the Edu-K work is so effective:

  • I ask people what they want to improve. Human beings are natural learners. But when they are overwhelmed by what they can’t do, or by analysis and information, they often forget their own interests. When we can support a person in rediscovering her innate curiosity, she naturally regains the confidence and motivation to explore the world and reclaim her place as a ready learner.
  • I teach from whole to parts, providing a personal, big-picture context (such as movement itself) with which to associate specifics. I engage learners through movement and play. It’s part of our innate intelligence, as seen in infancy, to learn through movement and exploration. Infants are tremendously motivated to take the micro-actions that, done repeatedly, will eventually become a visible movement such as rolling over, turning the head, reaching, or grasping. Toddlers continue to learn sensory and motor skills, best acquired with the support but not the interference of their caregivers. Pioneering educator Maria Montessori, MD, referred to such play as “the work of the child.”
  • I help learners to identify a next learning step—the specific aspect of the learning process that is challenging to them, and to understand that aspect in terms of underlying physical skills. I help a child to focus on that aspect only, until it has been mastered and integrated into the child’s functioning. Learners’ joy and pride in learning a specific ability is exciting to behold. They can readily see the commonsense logic of developing the physical skills needed for learning. This approach helps alleviate the shame and blame—any perceived need for judging skills or their lack—that has so often become associated with learning. From this more neutral place, children are able to appreciate the simple movements that help them experience the physical skills of learning and that give them the time to integrate these into function.

Learning is a lifelong process. Yes, it has its accompanying frustrations and difficulties. The pleasure is in turning such challenges into capabilities. Every person has within himself all that he needs to experience success, happiness, and the joy of learning.

Through the years, I’ve developed many learning models, sequences, and protocols that support this movement-based approach. These include the Dynamic Brain (a working model of the brain), the Learning Flow (that makes visible “the high and the low gears” of learning), the 5 Steps to Easy Learning, and the 3 Dimensions and 5 Principles for Movement-Based Learning.

I love teaching parents and educators how to do what I do. There’s nothing more wonderful than seeing the light go on in a young person’s eyes—or in the eyes of any learner, at any age!

 

1Rowe A. Young-Kaple, MS. Eye Dominance Difference Connection to LD Learning Disabilities. World Journal of Psychology Research, Vol. 1, No. 1, September 2013, pp: 01- 09: (mixed dominance with left-eye dominant: n= 54 LD (15%); mixed dominance with right-eye dominant: n=12 LD (6%); all right side dominant: n=38 LD (12%); n=119 or 12% of the total population of n=998 were identified as having a reported learning disability (LD). Available online

2David Grisham, OD, MS, Maureen Powers, PhD, Phillip Riles, MA. Visual skills of poor readers in high school. Optometry – Journal of the American Optometric AssociationVolume 78, Issue 10 , Pages 542-549, October 2007. © 2007 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc.

For more research on interpersonal synchrony and its effects on social bonds, see:

Cirelli, Laura K., Kathleen M. Einarson, and Laurel J. Trainor. 2014. “Interpersonal Synchrony Increases Prosocial Behavior in Infants.” Developmental Science: This study of 14-month olds  “. . . support[s] the hypothesis that interpersonal motor synchrony might be one key component of musical engagement that encourages social bonds among group members, and suggest[s] that this motor synchrony to music may promote the very early development of altruistic behavior.”

Shaw DJ, Czekóová K, Chromec J, Mareček R, Brázdil M (2013) Copying You Copying Me: Interpersonal Motor Co-Ordination Influences Automatic Imitation. PLoS ONE 8(12): e84820. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084820

Hove MJ, Risen JL (2009) It’s all in the timing: Interpersonal synchrony increases affiliation. Social Cognition 27: 949–960. doi: 10.1521/soco.2009.27.6.949 PubMed/NCBI

Photo Credits: ID 16450697 and 17770996 © Yuri Arcurs | Dreamstime.co

© 2013 by Paul E. Dennison. All rights reserved.

Brain Gym® is a trademark of Brain Gym® International/the Educational Kinesiology Foundation. Click here for the name of an instructor near you.

A New Year’s Transformation: From Survival to Freedom of Learning

Paul E. Dennison, Ph.D.

Paul E. Dennison, Ph.D.

It’s New Year’s Day again—that time of year in which so many of us reflect on what’s working in our lives, then making a list of promises to ourselves about how we will live better in the year to come. Did you ever notice that we make resolutions every year that soon are forgotten as we live our lives today the same way that we lived them yesterday and the day before that?

I was recently reminded of this when a young man I’ll call Steve came to me for an Edu-K balance*. He explained that he had been trying over the last couple of years to shift out of the stresses in his life. He was concerned that, in order to keep up with his job, he was becoming a workaholic. He kept promising himself that he’d soon slow down and begin taking care of his health, and take a vacation to spend time with his wife and children. Each January he had resolved to do this, beginning the year with new health goals, exercise routine, and so on, resolutely resetting his intentions throughout the year. And each year, he said, he had continued down the same old path of anxiety, exhaustion, and self-neglect.

I explained to Steve that, most often, we cannot create change by simply making a resolution; we must actually transform ourselves. The way I understand it, when we’re in a cycle of fear and stress the brain is hard-wired to keep doing the old familiar things, not to seek change. Our habits, patterns of movement, and learned modes of functioning are deeply interconnected in a long-term survival-based system that works to keep us alive and safe. The deep, older, part of the brain (in the brainstem) works by automatic pilot. Under perceived stress, it repeats the routines that keep us doing the same thing again and again. Our thinking mind, the frontal lobes of the new brain might see a logical solution to our search for something better, and resolve to make a shift. Our limbic emotional brain might feel good about the lifestyle change we envision; however, if the old brain, by default, is continuing to keep us safe—we must stay the same. Survival, at the level of the brainstem, is the only priority.

I shared with Steve that there’s also good news out there for folks like us who really want to do things differently. It’s called neuroplasticity. In the cycle of fear and stress, we react from default movement patterns of fight-or-flight. In order to make change, we need to engage imagination to create specific new movement patterns for daily life, via the frontal lobes, which can shift us from a stress cycle into a learning cycle.

In the learning cycle, the old brain can learn new habits, new patterns, and new ways of being. The old network of survival habits can dissolve and fall away as a new intentional neural network replaces it. The key is to do more than to state a resolution with words alone. Building new neural patterns requires a goal that is informed by personal experience, by feelings, and by the body physically moving and sensing in new ways.

I asked Steve, as a pre-activity, to describe what he would be doing day-to-day if he were taking better care of himself.  He replied that he would be walking more, going to the gym, maintaining a better diet—planning ahead rather than always feeling overwhelmed and falling behind, then being irritable with his wife and kids.

We role-played each of his desired activities as best as possible, as if he were already doing them everyday. I then asked Steve to tell me about how he pictured his quality time with his kids. Steve imagined playing ball with his son, reading a bedtime story to his little girl, and playing games together with his wife and children. We role-played these scenarios, as well. This was a difficult moment, as Steve could now see that, although he was committed to having good experiences with his body and his family, such behaviors weren’t yet comfortable or easy for him to imagine or physically access. That is, he hadn’t really internalized the physical habits of relaxation and engagement that he could call on when the time came to put these intentions into action.

Steve was now clearer about his goal, and I had him state it in first person: “I take care of myself and spend quality time with my family.” As he spoke the goal aloud, he was able to recognize that it wasn’t yet quite true.

I coached Steve by explaining, “Your movement system gives you access to your innate intelligence, the part that is hardwired for survival. Can you get that, by experiencing what’s working and not working about this goal, you’re already beginning to realize it? As you physically experience each part of your goal, you’re already creating new neural networks along which to move and interact as you live into your future. As you notice and affirm through action your successful use of these pathways, the old habits will let go of their former hold on your lifestyle.

I used Edu-K’s priority system to facilitate Steve’s goal balance; the first learning menu called for in the balance was Dennison Laterality Repatterning1. At first, Steve was unable to coordinate the left and right sides of his body. As always, I found it an honor to watch learning take place at the level of whole-body awareness. I used the repatterning process, in this case, to help Steve further deepen his awareness of, and then to integrate, the polarity he had been experiencing not only between his physical, lateral sides, but also between what he did everyday and what he wished he was doing.

Through priority, the learning menu next called for doing Hook-ups and the Positive Points2 while reviewing a situation he had experienced when he was only age 7, when he wasn’t able to make choices for himself. On hearing the age and the word choice, Steve immediately remembered having difficulty keeping up with his schoolwork. At the time, he couldn’t understand why his parents insisted that he give up outdoor play with his friends in order to first complete his homework. Not grasping the possible consequences of school failure, he had continued to resent their discipline of him regarding his homework throughout his school years.

Now, in the security of the Hook-ups activity and with the simultaneous pulsing of the Positive Points at his frontal lobes, he took only a minute or so to revisit those years of constant push-pull around sitting still to work and think, and revision himself as someone who now chooses to balance work with movement and play. He quickly relaxed, his shoulders dropping and his ribs expanding as he began to breathe deeply. He opened his eyes and said to me: “It’s funny: I started to see myself taking the time to be with my friends and family in a different way: moving and playing, then getting my work done. I realized that what happened back then wasn’t anybody’s fault—my parents just wanted what was best for me.”

The Cross Crawl showed up as the next priority. Steve now did this whole-body activity with rhythm, confidence, and fluidity, and with none of the downward stare of stressful trying that I had seen during the repatterning.

As we did the post-activities for exercising, taking a walk, and making plans to move and play with his family, Steve was calm and connected with each detail. As he role-played catching a ball and reading with his children, this time he was present and even teary-eyed. He was connecting with himself and his feelings—even with his thoughts about his family—in a new, relaxed way. By focusing on specific physical and sensory skills, Steve had connected his goal with a sense of autonomy, physical competence, and increased relatedness to his family and experiences–all basic elements of intrinsic motivation. 

This completed the balance. As Steve restated his goal, his words now rang true. We revisited the different role-playing experiences, which he now did with a hearty laugh and a spirit of play. “I think I got it!” he said.

Steve called me a week later to express a genuine gratitude for our work together. As I had suggested, he was doing his Brain Gym homeplay, and had been keeping a celebratory list of each time he made a positive choice for himself and his family, letting go of the old, self-bullying behaviors that had caused him so much anxiety. I’m grateful to be able to facilitate such transformation in my work.

And for those who are setting their New Year’s goals for this year, I encourage you to call in your imagination and make them physical, as Steve did, and as I do also. The more we can embody new learning through movement, the more we can experience the freedom, fulfillment, empowerment, and mind-body congruency that comes from accessing our sensory and movement patterns in support of our best intentions.

 

Photo Credit: ID 2349814 © Elena Elisseeva | Dreamstime.com

1An experiential, movement-based approach to learning, including the Edu-K balance process, Dennison Laterality Repatterning, and the Learning Menu of 26 Brain Gym® activities, are taught in Brain Gym® 101: Balance for Daily Life. 

2Hook-ups, the Positive Points (click to see description), and the Cross Crawl, are three of the 26 Brain Gym® activities described in Brain Gym®: Teacher’s Edition by Dennison and Dennison, © 2010. 

© 2013 by Paul Dennison. All rights reserved.

Brain Gym® is a trademark of the Educational Kinesiology Foundation/Brain Gym® International. Click here for the name of an instructor in your area.

Choosing Best-Case Scenarios in Uncertain Times

Paul Life happens: a disagreement, an illness or loss, a frustrating email, a rise in prices. Such challenging events happen to everyone.

Times of major change or transition can seem especially daunting, and even endless. Like everyone, I would prefer to feel safe and secure and to keep my life the same as it was when all seemed well and easy. And, as a senior in today’s fast-paced technological age, I find myself in a world that sometimes moves too quickly. Nowadays it seems I’m looking for information when few answers are comforting and there are always still more questions.

As a movement educator, I know how to connect with my positive thoughts. When I’m feeling frightened, frustrated, or angry, I’m also aware that my human brain has the capacity to be a worst-case thought machine. Sometimes I need to remind myself to notice when the words and feelings coming up for me are very old and all too familiar—not even based in my current day-to-day reality.

Why am I thinking such thoughts? Why am I so ready to defend, run away, or simply ignore it all? This isn’t me. Oh yes, it is! I realize from my experience with these issues that it works best if I don’t attach to these feelings or attempt to control them. Rather I allow myself to see them as part of a clearing of things from the past, and give myself as much loving kindness as possible. I find that the less I resist, the quicker and smoother the transition will be.

I best remember this by doing the Hook-ups exercise, which I have shared with parents, educators, and students in more than 20 countries during the last 40 years. I find that doing Hook-ups for myself is a good way to shift my state of mind, in a minute or so, from one of stress, tension, or anxiety to one of calm and ease.

Here’s how to do Hook-ups, Part 1: Sitting or standing, cross your ankles. Extend your arms in front of you and cross one wrist over the other; then interlace your fingers and draw your clasped hands up toward your chest. Breathe, holding your tongue against the roof of your mouth as you inhale deeply, releasing your tongue as you exhale.

At this point in the Hook-ups process, I often notice that my shoulders, which might have been taking on a raised posture of defense, are now relaxing down. My hands are resting over my heart, allowing my breathing to deepen and expand into the back of my rib cage. I can breathe and let go of my concerns as I rest my arms and legs and settle into my body’s relaxed center, experiencing a feeling that all is well.

I imagine that my brain reads my body language and says to itself: I must be calm and safe or else Paul would be holding his breath and reflexively using his arms and legs to fight, push away, or run. Instead, I am tending to and befriending myself: resting and restoring in my inner spaciousness. I sigh, my muscles relax, the stream of words subsides. I appreciate the calm equanimity of a resilient physiology that keeps providing for me even during challenging times.

Here’s how to do Hook-Ups, Part II: Placing your feet flat on the floor, untwine your arms and put your fingertips together. While I’m enjoying the profound relaxation of Hook-ups, I can trust my inner guidance to help me create best-case scenarios. In this place of conscious awareness, I can visualize and imagine the best outcomes for my life. I notice the old thoughts slowly fading away as I see new possibilities before me. I’m often then inspired to take action or to do something I might never before have thought about doing.

Many of my best ideas and insights for work, family, and play—those that have filled my heart and brain with light, peace, and gratitude for all my life’s blessings—have occurred during a minute or two spent doing Hook-ups. I owe much to this simple activity and the space it provides me for positive growth, allowing me to feel surrounded by love and support even during times of the most uncertainty.

 

***For more information about Hook-ups as well as the other Brain Gym activities, see Brain Gym®: Teacher’s Edition by Paul and Gail Dennison, © 2010.

Hooks-ups and other Brain Gym® activities are taught in Brain Gym® 101: Balance for Daily Life, and other Edu-K courses.

© 2013 by Paul Dennison. All rights reserved. 

Brain Gym® is a trademark of the Educational Kinesiology Foundation/Brain Gym® International. Click here for the name of an instructor in your area.

 

 

Book Review: The Genie in Your Genes: Epigenetic Medicine and the New Biology of Intention

The Genie in Your Genes: Epigenetic Medicine and the New Biology of Intention by Dawson Church, Elite Books, 2007, 362 pages

Paul E. Dennison

As I was studying for my doctorate in the 1960s, the debate in my educational psychology classes was that of the influence of “nature versus nurture”—the relative contributions of genetic inheritance and environmental factors to a child’s unfolding. Yet, as a mentor and educator, my definition of “nurture” is always to teach. All learners are unique, with varied gifts and strengths. I believe in the power of the learning process to bring out a person’s best, so my intention is always to nurture, no matter the circumstances.

On reading educator and researcher Dawson Church’s book Genie in Your Genes: Epigenetic Medicine and the New Biology of Intention, I felt a growing excitement as Church revealed recent scientific research showing the startling malleability of our genes, which can change from moment to moment according to our thoughts and feelings. In my own years of teaching, I have daily seen how new learning—which can occur in an instant—has a direct impact on vitality, motivation, and well-being. Church makes the case that we can influence our cells and bodies—our health—by “claim[ing] responsibility for the quality of thought and feeling we host, selecting those that radiate benevolence, goodwill, love, and kindness.” “Nurture” even affects and changes those genes that were believed to limit us!

In this book, Church asks some important questions, such as: “What can we teach every high school student, every worker, and every retiree that would maintain their bodies and their minds in the best possible condition for the longest possible time?” “How can we make the largest number of people as well as possible?” He then offers provocative answers to these questions by elucidating the new field of epigenetics, which links how we think and emote—our everyday consciousness—to genetic changes in our RNA and DNA.

Church’s well-researched work validates the premise that, for better or worse, our lifestyle choices do in fact affect our genes. “Nature,” our inherited genes, might play an important role in our genetic blueprint. However, “nurture,” the parental, cultural (including academic), and personal choices that influence how we think, move, eat, and self-calm, has now been proven beyond a doubt to make a critical difference in gene expression and even to alter our genes.

In this important book, the author reveals how our thoughts, beliefs, and emotions trigger the expression of DNA strands. Even the people we choose to have around us affect our genes. Church is intrigued by the early work on mirror neurons, said to fire in the brain when we witness an act done by another that calls on the same group of neurons in us. He focuses on a class of genes called immediate early genes or IEGs, which respond to life events within a few seconds. Many IEGs are regulatory genes that switch on other genes affecting specific aspects of the immune system. Distress or negative stress, whether sourced from within or mirroring another, can depress gene expression that enhances immune-system function. Thus epigenetics is explaining how thoughts and beliefs influence our health continuously, each and every day.

Church gives examples of interventions that can be used deliberately, in the moment, to shift thoughts, beliefs, energies, and perhaps ultimately one’s genes. He describes some remarkable healings done using Gary Craig’s Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT), which uses affirmation and meridian tapping in a way similar to Educational Kinesiology processes, with similar, often surprising, benefits. Church makes the case that emotions signify to the brain what things are important. By tapping or rubbing acupressure points, a soothing physiological signal can release stress or a catastrophic thought, breaking the conditioned association.

He further refers to the Energy Psychology work of Donna Eden and David Feinstein, and provides “how-tos” of the Cross Crawl and the Wayne Cook posture (two activities central to Edu-K, Cook’s posture being the origin of Brain Gym® Hook-ups).

The Genie in Your Genes cites hundreds of scientific studies that give a sound theoretical framework for understanding this new field. The book makes a compelling prediction that the insights of epigenetic medicine will, in the coming decade, dramatically advance not only medicine and psychology but also the vital field of education.

Taking Tests Can Be a Breeze

Children Taking a TestTest taking is required of students throughout their school career. And, according to parents and educators in my courses as well as my own reading in the field of modern education, test-taking anxiety is a major challenge for learners around the world. People of all ages have shared with me about how they froze up or otherwise couldn’t think when faced with an important test. And such tests often become a metaphor for similar life experiences, such as being interviewed or giving a presentation.

It’s commonly known that, when stress goes up, mental integration goes out. People can’t perform well or fully access what they know when they’re nervous, worried, or in fight-or-flight mode. Writer’s block and test-taking apprehension result from trying too hard, doubting one’s abilities, or feeling oneself to be under pressure to perform. And in my work, I find that people writing under pressure to perform typically exaggerate one-sided habits of movement, avoiding the midfield where the left and right visual fields should overlap for memory access and information processing. For example, in the photo above, three youngsters are exhibiting movement patterns like tilting the head or putting the face so close to the page that they can’t focus with both eyes at once.1,2,3    

I’m reminded of an anecdote related to me by a school principal. She was proctoring an exam for fifth-graders when a child approached her to say that she needed to do some Brain Gym® activities in the hallway outside the room, and asked if she could. The principal advised her that this would be okay, but that the test was timed and she’d need to turn in her paper when everyone else did. The young lady stepped out to the hall for a few minutes to do Brain Buttons, the Cross Crawl, Lazy 8s, and Hook-ups, and soon came confidently back into the room, completed her exam, turned in her paper early, and ultimately received a high score.

This child knew she could depend on certain kinds of movement to support her relaxation, reconnection, and information retrieval. As that principal pointed out, this youngster knew how to notice her experience and take care of herself; she knew how to do her best without trying.

It’s because of feedback like this that I find great satisfaction in teaching people how to do their best under high-pressure conditions. Doing consistent Brain Gym activities helps classroom learners faced with performance anxiety to self-calm, access their sensory skills and whole-body movement, and do their best.

A parent will tell me that she knows her child is bright beyond his years and has the answers, yet he can’t seem to put what he knows down on paper—especially during a test. As a teacher, I often respond that modern education gives too much attention to rote memorization or stamping information in, and has lost the true measure of learning: the joy of exploring the rich world, of feeling and senses, in which one lives. Learning is a different experience altogether when we can see our lives as a context for the easy retrieval of information from memory. This is why learners everywhere can benefit from the 26 simple Brain Gym aids to getting the information out.

 

1In my Edu-K work, I use movement to teach students to centralize their focus and to develop saccadic ease. Through simple activities, they learn to identify and develop singleness of vision and eye-coordination skills at near point (reading distance), and skills of accommodation (focus and refocus) at various distances and in different sequences. I find that these physical skills are directly related to ease of reading, writing, and test-taking, and that they can be learned.

2David Grisham, OD, MS, Maureen Powers, PhD, Phillip Riles, MA. Visual skills of poor readers in high school. Optometry – Journal of the American Optometric Association: Volume 78, Issue 10 , Pages 542-549, October 2007. © 2007 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. 

3Maureen Powers, PhD, David Grisham, OD, Phillip Riles, MA. Saccadic tracking skills of poor readers in high school. Optometry – Journal of the American Optometric Association Volume 79, Issue 5 , Pages 228-234, May 2008. © 2008 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. 

(C) 2013 by Paul E. Dennison. All rights reserved.

Brain Gym®  is a trademark of Educational Kinesiology Foundation/Brain Gym®  International. Click here for the name of an instructor in you area.

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